Kamis, 02 Juli 2009

Tips Atasi Demam Pada Si Kecil


Setiap orang tua pasti akan khawatir apabila si kecil demam. Karena selama demam anak jadi rewel. Tubuh dikatakan demam bila suhu tubuhnya melebihi 37,50C. Normalnya, suhu tubuh manusia berkisar antara 36 -37,50C . Suhu tubuh balita mudah meningkat bukan hanya karena adanya kuman yang masuk tetapi juga akibat kegiatan sehari-harinya seperti melompat, berlari-larian di terik matahari.

Sebenarnya munculnya demam merupakan reaksi atau mekanisme tubuh untuk bertahan dalam menghadapi masuknya benda asing atau kuman penyakit (virus, bakteri atau parasit) ke dalam tubuh. Adakalanya demam disertai dengan menggigil, kondisi ini terjadi akibat kuman yang masuk kedalam tubuh mengeluarkan racun.

Selama kondisi si kecil bagus, mekanisme pertahanan tubuhnya tertentu akan berjalan baik. Anak pun tidak harus diberi obat. Untuk kasus tertentu demam seperti berpola. Misalnya, suhu tubuh anak naik pada malam hari, atau suhu tubuh naik beberapa hari kemudian turun lagi, lalu selang beberapa hari naik lagi. Dokter dapat menentukan sumber penyakit anak dengan mempelajari gaya demam ini.

Walaupun demam yang terjadi dalam tubuh ada tujuannya, bukan berarti bisa diabaikan. Bila si anak demam disebabkan masuknya virus, biasanya setelah 2 atau 3 hari demam sudah turun. Tapi bila sampai lebih dari 3 hari demam tidak hilang, sebaiknya si kecil dibawa ke dokter. Suhu tubuh anak sangat tinggi, misalnya 390C, si kecil harus segera di bawa ke dokter. Suhu yang tinggi tersebut bisa menandakan terjadinya infeksi yang cukup berat. Apabila suhu tubuh yang sangat tinggi terus menerus akan menyebabkan anak menderita dehidrasi dan kejang, terutama bagi anak dengan riwayat kejang dalam keluarga. Kejang yang terlalu lama menyebabkan gangguan pada otak.

Tips atasi demam pada anak

  • Pantau suhu tubuh secara berkala dengan menggunakan thermometer khusus untuk anak.
  • Beri cairan yang banyak untuk menghindari dehidrasi.
  • Konsumsi gizi seimbang, untuk memperkuat daya tahan tubuh anak.
  • Cukup beristirahat, tidak melakukan gerakan fisik yang melelahkan.
  • Perhatikan sirkulasi ruangan. Jangan sampai pengap dan tidak ada aliran udara, tapi juga jangan terlalu banyak angin masuk dalam ruangan.
  • Beri obat penurun demam, bila suhu tubuh anak melebihi 380C. Pemberian obat harus dihentikan bila suhu tubuh kembali normal.
  • Kompres air hangat, terutama bila suhu tubuh anak mencapai 390C. Kompres bisa diletakan di dahi, perut atau lipatan ketiak, serta paha. Air hangat membuat pembuluh darah tepi di kulit melebar dan membuka pori-pori tubuh sehingga penguapan terjadi lebih cepat.
  • Kenakan baju katun yang menyerap keringat. Bila anak menggigil, beri selimut atau kaus kaki, tetapi segera lepaskan kembali bila menggigilnya hilang.
  • Segera bawa ke dokter, bila demam tidak juga turun atau si kecil terlihat begitu menghawatirkan.

Sumber : Ayahbunda

8 komentar:

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